Real Estate Glossary
Real Estate Speak – Terms Used in Real Estate
Absentee Landlord: the property owner doesn’t live in the property but receives a rental income from it.
Abstract of Auction: a summary of all the displayed advertisements for auctions within the real estate section of the newspaper.
Abstract of Title: a listing in chronological order of any conveyances, mortgages or other deeds showing the description of the land and names of owners, displayed on a property title to show ownership in the Torrens Title system.
Acceleration Clause: a clause written into mortgage documentation which states the entire balance of the mortgage may fall due at any time in the event the mortgagee is considered to be in breach of the mortgage conditions outlined within that document.
Access Rights: the right of entry to and exit from any property that adjoins a road or highway, which is displayed on the Certificate of Title for any parties who receive the right or grant the right.
Accessible Housing: a home purposely designed to offer easier access to the physically impaired or vision impaired.
Acquiring Authority: the acquiring authority can be any government department or local authority that has been given the compulsory authority to acquire land.
Adaptable Housing: a home purposely designed to be easily modified to enable access for the physically impaired or the vision impaired should the need arise.
Adjustments: any amounts owed for a portion of ownership to cover rates, taxes, insurances, body corporate fees, strata fees or any other amounts that may fall due up to settlement date for a sale of a property.
Agent: the person authorised to act on behalf of what’s usually a property owner, whether this be the real estate agent to act for the seller of a property or a rental agent to act in a management role on behalf of the landlord, but can also act on behalf of the buyer in the case of a buyer’s agent.
Agents in Conjunction: name given in the case of more than one real estate agent being appointed to sell a property, in which any commission earned will be shared.
Allotment: Also known as a lot or block of land. When land is subdivided, the smaller portions which arise out of the division are called allotments.
Amenities: The benefits of a property, which can include features surrounding the properties such as parks and restaurants, or the features of the property itself including pools or garage spaces.
Apartment: an apartment is a name given to a room or rooms that can be used as a dwelling. This term doesn’t necessarily indicate the dwelling is self-contained, as it would be if the property was described as a flat.
Appraisal: An appraisal can be given by a licensed real estate agent to determine estimated market value, or valuation can be ordered by a bank from a licensed property valuer to determine a property value based on comparative sales of other properties in the market – Only a licensed valuer can undertake a valuation.
Appreciation: an increase in capital value in real estate.
Arbitration: the resolution or determination of a dispute by an independent third party as an alternative action to taking the dispute through the court system. Arbitrators may be appointed by both parties, but the appointment must be in accordance with the arbitration terms. The decision reached by the arbitrator is binding to both parties.
Arrears: unpaid amounts of money owing.
Assessed Value (or Rateable Value or Taxable Value): the value relating to property that is based on any definitions pertaining to the laws relating to the assessment, the rating or the taxation of property.
Assumption of Mortgage: in the case of a buyer taking ownership of a property that is encumbered with a registered mortgage over the title and in which the owner has agreed to assume the legal responsibility for being the guarantor for any remaining balance owing on the mortgage. With the Assumption of Mortgage, that buyer becomes liable for meeting the mortgage payment obligations.
Auction: a sale conducted by an auctioneer where the property is sold to the highest bidder.
Auction Agency Agreement: an agreement detailing the property reserve price, advertising fees and any other costs associated with conducting the auction that the vendor needs to sign before the auction commences.
Auctioneer: the licensed convenor of an auction.
Basis Point: one hundred basis points is the same as 1%.
Battleaxe: An axe-shaped property, where the handle refers to a driveway which connects to the property (the axe blade) at the rear. It usually is the result of a subdivision of a larger property where the battleaxe property is between two other blocks and therefore has no street frontage of its own.
Bid: a price offer made either verbally or in writing to purchase a home.
Body Corporate: the name given to the body that represents a collective group of owners, usually for Strata Titled properties in which the owners of units are the only members within that body corporate structure.
Bond (rental): a form of deposit paid by a tenant and retained as security over a lease. The bond is usually refunded upon satisfactory return of the property at the end of a lease.
Brick Veneer: This refers to a property which has a timber frame and a brick exterior.
Bridging finance: A short-term loan taken out to finance a new property before you’ve sold your existing property.
Building Code of Australia (BCA): the minimum standard by which buildings must adhere to for safety and health purposes, as set out from the Australian Building Codes Board.
Building Inspector: a person who checks the progress of construction or who checks the completed construction of an established building to ensure that building works done are in line with building control codes.
Building Line: the distance a property or building needs to be set back from the site boundary.
Building Regulations: the regulations from the Building Code of Australia that must be followed when designing or constructing buildings.
Building Restrictions: controls and regulations that limit or otherwise restrict the use or location of buildings or other additions to land.
Business Broker: an agent licensed to sell businesses.
Buyers Market: specific property market conditions where properties may be in over-supply, which results in a reduction in property prices, giving property buyers an advantage.
Buyer’s Agent: an agent who represents and acts on behalf of the buyer during negotiations for purchasing a property.
Capital Gain: the profit margin calculated from the net proceeds of the sale, minus the cost of the capital asset.
Capital Gains Tax: a tax levied on profits derived from making a capital gain, usually on the sale of an asset used for investment purposes.
Caveat: a notification listed on the property title to show an interest in that property other than the registered owner.
Caveat Emptor: Latin for “let the buyer beware”. The purchaser of property carries the greater risk during the transaction.
Certificate of Title: the document created under the Torrens Title System to describe the land and to show ownership, along with noting any interested parties, such as banks or mortgagors over the title.
Chattels: fixed assets aside from freehold land. These can include machinery, tools, furnishings and fittings. These are items that may be removed from the land but the removal of them won’t cause structural damage to the fixed building.
Client: a person who uses the services of an agent to sell a property in return for paying a commission upon the sale of that property.
Commercial Property: a property specifically intended for commercial use. In most cases, the property title may show commercial zoning to reflect intended use, such as with shopping centres, retail stores, office buildings, hotels and other such establishments.
Commission: a percentage amount payable based on the sale price of a property that is paid to the selling real estate agent upon successful sale.
Common Law Title: the title system originally based on English land laws, which shows the successive trail of ownership of a property from the original Crown grant through to current owners.
Common Property: a section of land where all owners have equal rights and access to public access areas. This usually happens with the Community Title system, in which a development containing multiple dwellings shares driveway access or other public areas, as set out by the Body Corporate.
Company Title: a type of property ownership where the land and buildings are owned by a company. The shareholders of the company are granted exclusive possession of specified components of the building. Most commonly used with apartments or units where multiple properties exist on the same land title.
Compound Interest: a formula for calculating interest where any previous interest earned is included in ongoing calculations.
Compulsory Acquisition: the acquisition of a property made via legislation, whether the owner wants to sell or not.
Conditions of Sale: any conditions added to a sale contract between a property vendor and the property purchaser, which must be adhered to before settlement of the sale can be finalised (e.g. subject to finance conditions must be met before the contract can proceed).
Consideration: the amount of money exchanged in return for a specified action, whether this is the receipt or goods or services provided.
Contract: legally binding agreement.
Contract of Sale: a binding agreement that relates to the sale of a property, which details any terms and conditions relevant to that sale.
Conveyance: a deed transferring ownership of a property title from one person to another.
Cooling Off Period: the period of time during which the buyer may withdraw and cancel an offer made under contract to purchase a property. This does not apply to assets purchased during the auction, as terms and conditions are usually set to be unconditional.
Counter-Offer: in the event that the initial purchase price or conditions offer submitted by the buyer is unacceptable, the vendor may submit a counter-offer detailing a different price or amended conditions.
Crown Land: land owned by the Commonwealth Government or by a State Government.
Date of Settlement: the date on which final payment is made to complete the purchase transaction and on which the ownership on the title is amended from the vendor to the buyer.
Deed: any document executed under seal, such as a conveyance.
Deposit: the sum of money put down at the time of signing a contract of sale to secure the property. This can be set as a percentage amount of the purchase price, such as a 10% deposit required after being the winning bidder at an auction, or an agreed sum, which is more common with Private Treaty sales.
Depreciation: in real estate terms, depreciation can mean writing down the initial cost of an asset over the duration or lifespan of that asset. This can also be used for valuation purposes to write down the current cost of the asset to determine a current value.
Development Approval: the approval received from a planning authority to proceed with construction, demolition, addition, amendment or renovation of a property.
Disbursements: any costs that may be deemed as recoverable. These usually include any expenses paid by the agent that needs to be repaid by the owner, which can include advertising costs, council rates or water rates, or other taxes that may apply.
Display Home: a home displayed for the purposes of offering buyers a perspective view of a dwelling that is available for sale.
Dual occupancy home: A property that’s zoned to allow the building of two separate living arrangements, in the case of a granny flat or duplex.
Duplex: One dwelling comprised of two separate homes with separate entrances.
Dry Rot: the rotting or decay of timber due to infestation by fungus.
Easement: the right for another person or authority to use a portion or allocation of land. Easements may also be used to prevent the property owner from using a portion or allocation of land for specified purposes. This usually includes precluding the construction of permanent structures over sections of land where drainage or electrical power mains may run beneath the property.
Effective Age: the relative age of a building based on its physical condition rather than its actual chronological age. For example, a 7-year-old building may have an effective age of 10 years as a result of poor maintenance. This can indicate the level of care and maintenance required by a new owner when considering purchasing a property.
Effective Cause of Sale: when a property is sold as a result of the sales and marketing efforts of a real estate agent, that agent is considered to be the effective cause of the sale. The agent is then entitled to a commission, based on a percentage of the sale price of the dwelling.
Effective Date: the date at which something commences or expires.
Egress: an exit point on a property.
Encumbrance: a charge listed over a property that may specify any use to which the property may be used for. This includes a mortgage over property or other special conditions that include easements or reservations.
Environmental Impact Study: an assessment of any current environmental conditions and the effect an intended development may have on the environment if they were to proceed.
Equity: the value of ownership you have over your property, determined by the property’s market value minus any liabilities or debts over that property.
Eviction: the removal of a tenant or other person from a property.
Exchange of Contracts: the process of creating a binding contract for the sale of property between the vendor and the purchaser. Each party must sign the contract and then exchange fully executed copies of these to make the contract legally binding between both parties.
Exclusive Agency Agreement: an agreement from a vendor that the real estate agency appointed will be the sole agency used to sell or advertise that property.
Exclusive Listing: the appointment of a sole real estate agent or agency to advertise and market a property for sale. The real estate agent is entitled to a commission based on a percentage amount of the sale price achieved.
Extension of Lease: the amendment of an existing lease to extend the period of time it can be leased after the expiry date passes.
Fire Resistance Rating: the estimated length of time a structure or an element within a structure can be expected to continue to function at a satisfactory level in the event of a fire, as determined by the correct authorities.
Fireproofing: the act of treating or using non-combustible materials in an effort to reduce a property’s susceptibility to fire. This is most commonly used within structural components to improve the likelihood of the building maintaining its integrity in the event of a complete burn-out.
First Refusal: the right of first refusal is often given to a person who is considered to have the first opportunity to purchase or rent a property.
Fittings: any items within a property that can be removed safely and without damage to a property, its structure, or the premises.
Fixed Interest Rate: an interest rate that is locked in at an agreed percentage rate for a specified period of time. During the fixed term, the rate being charged isn’t subjected to fluctuations in the market.
Fixtures: any items or parts of a property that are affixed in such a way that may risk damaging the property or the item itself if it was to be removed from the property. These items are usually sold with property and often include things like carpets or awnings.
Flat: the common term for a self-contained unit within a multi-unit building.
Foreclose: the act of removing any interests or rights from a property owner as a result of non-payment of any charges due for that property. This is most commonly associated with banks foreclosing on properties as a result of defaulting on repayments, but can also occur with councils foreclosing on properties as a result of failure to pay rates.
Foreign Investment Review Board (FIRB): an entity within the Australian Government that is assigned to review any applications or proposals from foreign buyers when planning to invest in property or other asset classes within Australia. <a href=”http://www.firb.gov.au”>firb.gov.au</a>
Freehold: absolute ownership with no encumbrances or liabilities, aside from any limitations that may be imposed on the owner by the state.
Gazumping: the term used when a property owner agrees to sell a property to a buyer and then rescinds the agreement in order to sell it to a different buyer under better conditions.
Gearing (Leverage): the act of borrowing against the equity in a property in order to purchase an asset. Usually used by investors borrowing to purchase investment properties. Positive gearing is the term used when all rental income received covers the total costs of interest charges and other fees associated with owning that property. Negative gearing is the term used when the rental income received is insufficient to cover the interest charges and other costs associated with ownership of the property.
Going Concern: the term used to describe an operational business that will remain operating into the foreseeable future.
Goods and Services Tax (GST): the tax levied by the Commonwealth Government for providing certain goods or services.
Grace Period: the period of time between the date a mortgage payment is overdue and the date it’s officially recognised as being in default.
Graduated Lease: a lease agreement where the initial lease payments begin at one amount and then are either increased or decreased over an agreed period.
Guarantor: a person who agrees to take over payments or fulfil other contractual obligations if the primary party fails to do so.
Hammer Price: the winning bid or final price paid when an item is sold at auction.
Head Lease (or Master Lease): the over-riding primary lease to a person or an entity who will subsequently sub-lease the premises to other tenants, who will become tenants in possession.
Holding Deposit: the deposit amount paid by the buyer to the real estate agent to secure a contract when purchasing a property.
House: a single place of residence that is usually self-contained and detached from any other buildings.
Implied Covenant: a covenant that has not been written into a lease, but that has been implied. This may include a tenant agreeing to keep rental premises clean and tidy, even though this may not have been expressly detailed in the lease agreement.
Implied Easement: an easement that is made apparent by the continued and long-standing use upon a property that has not been challenged for a lengthy period of time.
Ingress: an entry point for a property.
Interest: the charge made by a lender that a borrower must repay on top of paying back the actual loan amount outstanding(also known as the principal).
Interest-Only Loan: a type of loan where the repayments are calculated to cover only the amount of interest accumulated on the loan each month in arrears.
Interest Rate: the rate at which a lender may charge for borrowing money, or at which an investment may pay as a rate of return. This amount is expressed as a percentage per year.
Investment Property: a property owned by one person or entity and subsequently rented to another in order to earn rental income or to gain capital appreciation in the value of the property.
Land Tax: a tax levied on the ownership of land, based on the value of the unimproved land component of the property.
Landlord: the owner of a rented or tenanted property, who allows the use of that property under the terms of a lease agreement.
Lease: an agreement where regular payments are made over an agreed length of time by a tenant or lessor in return for the use of a property.
Lease Abstract: a summary listing details of a lease document.
Lease Term: the length of time the lease is due to run.
Leasehold: the use of a property where the land is leased for a period of time.
Lender’s Mortgage Insurance: Also known as Mortgage Guarantee Insurance. This is a fee paid by the borrower for the lender to gain insurance to cover any foreseeable losses that may arise in the event the borrower cannot meet payment obligations. It usually applies to Loan to Value (LVR) ratios of over 80%.
Lessee (Tenant): the person who has the right to use or reside in property in exchange for rental payments for the duration of the lease term.
Lessor (Landlord): the owner of a rented or tenanted property, who allows the use of that property under the terms of a lease agreement.
Licensed Real Estate Agent: an agent who is licensed to conduct activities pertaining to a real estate business.
Lien: an encumbrance placed over the property to secure the payment of a debt.
Listing: the term used to describe an instruction to sell or lease a property. Also used to describe the properties that may be available for sale by a real estate agent.
Loan to Value Ratio (LVR): This is the ratio of a loan to the value of the property. For example, a loan size of $400,000 for a property worth $450,000 makes for an LVR of 89%.
Long-Term Lease: a lease agreement where the term extends for 10 or more years.
Maintenance: work conducted on a property in order to keep it in satisfactory condition or to maintain existing fixtures and fittings to a level of usability.
Management Agreement: a contractual agreement between a property owner and a property manager detailing the tasks and duties required of each in the course of managing a property.
Management Fee: a fee charged by a property manager to a landlord in exchange for providing property management services.
Managing Agent: the agent who is authorised to conduct management procedures and operations relating to a property on behalf of the owner.
Market Price: the actual price written into a contract of sale, or the amount actually paid, to purchase a property. As agreed upon by a willing buyer and a willing seller.
Market Value: the estimated value based on a detailed analysis of relevant data, at which a property should be anticipated to fetch if it was listed for sale on the open market, between a willing buyer and a seller, with no outside influences or barriers to sale or purchase
Median: the number that sits precisely in the middle of a range of numbers when they are arranged in sequential order from lowest to highest.
Mediation: the act of a third party intermediary assisting to resolve a dispute between two or more parties in an effort to reach a mutually satisfactory resolution.
Mortgage: the security taken by a mortgagor over property to protect and secure the payment of a debt.
Mortgagee: entity or financial institution that lends money using the property as collateral security for the loan.
Mortgagee Sale: a sale conducted by the mortgagee in an effort to recoup money owed on an outstanding mortgage loan where the borrower has failed to keep up with payment obligations.
Mortgagor: a person who borrows money in exchange for allowing the mortgagee to use the property or asset as collateral security for the loan.
National Tenancy Database: a database containing information about the tenant’s past rental history. Used by rental agents to identify tenants that may have breached tenancy agreements during previous leases.
Negative Gearing: the act of borrowing money to purchase an investment property, where the rental income received does not cover the interest charges and other expenses associated with owning that property. The shortfall of funds is covered by the landlord or property owner.
Notice of Termination: a notification given by the tenant or the landlord indicating a desire to terminate and finalise the rental lease, including vacating the premises.
Notice to Quit: a notification given to the tenant by the landlord or managing agent informing them to vacate the rental premised. This is usually issued in the event of the tenant breaching terms as set out in the rental lease.
Offer: a price submitted to the vendor for consideration to purchase property or to lease an asset.
Offset account: An account linked to your home loan which offsets the interest due on your home loan. For example, a 100% offset account with $40,000 in it will mean you won’t pay $40,000 worth of interest on your loan.
Open Agency Agreement: an agreement made between a vendor and a real estate agent to create an ‘open’ listing.
Open Listing: where the vendor appoints more than one agent to sell or manage the property on a non-exclusive basis. The agent who first finds a buyer is the one entitled to be paid a commission upon the sale of that property.
Outbuildings: a structure on the property that does not form part of the main building. This often includes garages or workshops built on the land that is separated from the main home.
Outgoings: any expenses or costs paid in an effort to generate an income. In terms of real estate, this may include such costs as management fees, council rates, or repairs and maintenance on the property.
Owner: with respect to land, the owner is any person who is entitled to the land of an estate or who is entitled to receive rental income from the property. This can include an individual person, joint persons, trustees or mortgagees in possession.
Passed In: any property that isn’t sold at an auction or where the bidding doesn’t reach the reserve price set by the owner is considered to be passed in.
Periodic Lease: a period of time after the rental lease has expired where the tenant remains in a rental property and continues to pay rent on a periodic basis.
Planning Approval: an approval received from the appropriate authority detailing a specified use for a property.
Preferred Listings: offering one agent the right to sell or lease a property based purely on predetermined preference.
Premises: the property, buildings or other structures and the surrounding grounds on an allotment of land that forms part of the title. In real estate terms, the premises are considered to be the property that forms the subject of a conveyance.
Principal: the term used to describe the proprietor or the client in many Australian contracts.
Private Sale: a sale of a property where the owner conducts the marketing and sale negotiations without the assistance of a licensed agent.
Private Treaty Sale: a term used to describe the negotiation of a property sale between the buyer and vendor or their respective agents.
Property: property is anything that may be owned, or over which interest can be held, or that can be traded or sold, or that may derive benefits from ownership of the current or future rights, or that can be bequeathed to an estate. In terms of real estate, property relates to the private rights of ownership over a land title and the buildings and structures included on that title.
Property Management: the act of managing property on the owner’s behalf, including finding and managing tenants, seeing to maintenance needs and collecting any rent that may be due.
Rates: various taxes that may be levied on a property by the local or state governments. For example council rates and water rates.
Real Estate Agent: the person authorised to act on behalf a property owner in conducting negotiations for the sale of a property, usually the agent to act for the seller of a property.
Real Property: any rights, benefits or other interests that may relate to ownership of real estate. By comparison, real estate is a physical asset. Real property is a legal concept relating to ownership.
Rent: the amount of money paid by a tenant to a landlord for the use of property or premises.
Rent Review: a review of the current rental amount paid for a lease, usually conducted at the end of the lease period to determine an adequate amount of increase in line with CPI or to remain on par with the market.
Rent Roll: the list of rental properties under management by a real estate agency. Details on the rent roll include tenant’s names, rental amount paid and rental property addresses.
Rental Determination: the rental income figure determined by a licensed independent valuer to ascertain the correct amount that should be achievable for that property based on the market.
Rescind: to withdraw an offer and terminate a previously-submitted contract of sale for a property.
Reserve Price: the lowest possible sale price a vendor will accept during the auction.
Residential Tenancies Tribunal: unbiased third-party body designed to assist in resolving disputes between landlords and tenants.
Reverse Mortgage: a mortgage held over a residential property where no payments are required until the home is sold or until the last remaining owner dies.
Right of Access: an agreement to allow the ongoing right of access to property. This may be for storage or for inspection of services or for agistment purposes.
Right of Entry: an agreement allowing the landlord to enter the premises after an agreed notification period to inspect a property.
Seller’s Market: market conditions where an under-supply of properties inflates property prices, giving the seller an advantage.
Settlement: the completion of a property purchase where the buyer pays the total amount of money owing for the sale of a property to the vendor in exchange for taking over legal ownership of that property. In Queensland this is usually 28 days for an established property.
Settlement Date: the date on which settlement occurs.
Simple Interest: the interest calculation based on a figure that doesn’t incorporate any previous interest accrued.
Sole Agency: the appointment of a sole real estate agent or agency to advertise and market a property for sale. The real estate agent is entitled to a commission based on a percentage amount of the sale price achieved.
Speculator: an investor who purchases an asset, including property, with the hopes of being able to re-sell the same asset for a profit.
Stamp Duty: a state tax paid by a buyer on some contracts, including property. The amount of stamp duty payable is calculated based on the contract price of the property on settlement day.
Standard Lease: the common lease form used, where various clauses or provisions can be added or amended.
Strata Plan: the plan of a property detailing and outlining the boundaries or lots or unit areas for a strata titled property.
Strata Title: a type of property ownership where each owner has rights of ownership to designated parts of a building, but still retains joint rights over common areas on the property.
Subdivision: the division of an original allotment of land into separate allotments, complete with separate titles.
Sub-Lease: a contractual agreement where a part of a property is leased to another person other than the original lessee.
Survey: the measurements detailing boundaries or a property and the measurements and location of any buildings or improvements on the land.
Tenancy Agreement: a lease agreement between a landlord and a tenant to rent a property for a specified period of time.
Tenancy In Common: a type of ownership where each owner remains separate. In the event of one owner dying, the other owner or owners don’t automatically inherit ownership of the deceased portion, it goes to the deceased person’s estate instead.
Tenant: the person or company who leases a building in exchange for paying rent to the landlord.
Tenant’s Agent: a licensed agent who acts on behalf of a tenant, usually used in commercial transactions.
Tender: written bid submitted to purchase an asset.
Title: the document detailing particulars and ownership of a property.
Title Deeds: documents detailing and evidencing the ownership of a property.
Torrens Title: the title to registered ownership of land that is registered with the appropriate Land Titles Office. Originally created and enacted in 1858 by Sir Robert Torrens in South Australia.
Townhouse: A two storey attached dwelling.
Trust Account: a bank account where money is held in trust on behalf of another person. Usually used for holding deposits or rent by an agent or a conveyancer during property transactions.
Unencumbered Property: a property that is free of any mortgages, leases or restrictive covenants.
Unimproved Value: the value of the land as though it had no improvements on it, including site works, properties or other improvements. The unimproved value is generally used for tax purposes or to determine rates for a particular property.
Unit: each dedicated allotment or individual unit within a strata plan.
Vacancy: an unlet or unleased rental property.
Vacancy Rate: the number of eligible rental properties that remain vacant.
Vacant Possession: the right to possess property where there is no current occupant.
Vacate: to move out of a property.
Valuation: the estimated value of a property at a specified period of time.
Valuation Report: a document that outlines and details the basis for the valuation, plus an estimation of the property value. The valuation report often contains information pertaining to sales of comparable properties in the area, as well as an analysis of the property type and current condition.
Valuer: a licensed person who is registered to complete valuations for property, machinery or other assets.
Variation: an amendment or alteration to a contract or to the conditions within the contract.
Vendor: the person selling an item or an asset.
Villa: A single-storey detached dwelling.
Voidable: a type of agreement that can be voided by either of the parties.
Water Closet: a toilet or room fitted with toilet facilities.
Without Reserve: a term used at auction to signal that a reserve price was not set by the vendors. This also signals that the buyer with the highest bid on auction day will buy the property at the bid price.
Yield: the return on investment calculated on the net rental income received and divided by the price paid or market value of a property to arrive at a percentage figure.
Zoning: a planning tool used by local governments or council areas to designate future uses for individual allotments of land. Zones usually include residential, commercial, industrial or agricultural use.